Operators in C

C - Operators

Operators in C : An operator is simply a symbol that is used to perform operations. There can be many types of operations like arithmetic, logical, bitwise, etc.

There are following types of operators to perform different types of operations in C language.

  1. Arithmetic Operators
  2. Relational Operators
  3. Shift Operators
  4. Logical Operators
  5. Bitwise Operators
  6. Ternary or Conditional Operators
  7. Assignment Operator
  8. Misc Operator

Arithmetic Operators

OperatorDescriptionExample :A=2,b=2
+Adds two operands.A + B = 4
Subtracts second operand from the first.A − B = 0
*Multiplies both operands.A * B = 4
/Divides numerator by de-numerator.B / A = 0
%Modulus Operator and remainder of after an integer division.B % A = 0
++Increment operator increases the integer value by one.A++ = 3
Decrement operator decreases the integer value by one.A– = 1

Relational Operators

OperatorDescriptionExample
==Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not. If yes, then the condition becomes true.(A == B) is not true.
!=Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not. If the values are not equal, then the condition becomes true.(A != B) is true.
Checks if the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand. If yes, then the condition becomes true.(A > B) is not true.
Checks if the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand. If yes, then the condition becomes true.(A < B) is true.
>=Checks if the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand. If yes, then the condition becomes true.(A >= B) is not true.
<=Checks if the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand. If yes, then the condition becomes true.(A <= B) is true.

Logical Operators

OperatorDescriptionExample
&&Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are non-zero, then the condition becomes true.(A && B) is false.
||Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands is non-zero, then the condition becomes true.(A || B) is true.
!Called Logical NOT Operator. It is used to reverse the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true, then Logical NOT operator will make it false.!(A && B) is true.

Bitwise Operators

OperatorDescriptionExample
&Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands.(A & B) = 12, i.e., 0000 1100
|Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in either operand.(A | B) = 61, i.e., 0011 1101
^Binary XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both.(A ^ B) = 49, i.e., 0011 0001
~Binary One’s Complement Operator is unary and has the effect of ‘flipping’ bits.(~A ) = ~(60), i.e,. -0111101
<< Binary Left Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand.A << 2 = 240 i.e., 1111 0000
>> Binary Right Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand.A >> 2 = 15 i.e., 0000 1111

Assignment Operators in C

OperatorDescriptionExample
=Simple assignment operator. Assigns values from right side operands to left side operandC = A + B will assign the value of A + B to C
+=Add AND assignment operator. It adds the right operand to the left operand and assign the result to the left operand.C += A is equivalent to C = C + A
-=Subtract AND assignment operator. It subtracts the right operand from the left operand and assigns the result to the left operand.C -= A is equivalent to C = C – A
*=Multiply AND assignment operator. It multiplies the right operand with the left operand and assigns the result to the left operand.C *= A is equivalent to C = C * A
/=Divide AND assignment operator. It divides the left operand with the right operand and assigns the result to the left operand.C /= A is equivalent to C = C / A
%=Modulus AND assignment operator. It takes modulus using two operands and assigns the result to the left operand.C %= A is equivalent to C = C % A
<<=Left shift AND assignment operator.C <<= 2 is same as C = C << 2
>>=Right shift AND assignment operator.C >>= 2 is same as C = C >> 2
&=Bitwise AND assignment operator.C &= 2 is same as C = C & 2
^=Bitwise exclusive OR and assignment operator.C ^= 2 is same as C = C ^ 2
|=Bitwise inclusive OR and assignment operator.C |= 2 is same as C = C | 2

Misc Operators ↦ sizeof & ternary


Operator
DescriptionExample
sizeof()Returns the size of a variable.sizeof(a), where a is integer, will return 4.
&Returns the address of a variable.&a; returns the actual address of the variable.
*Pointer to a variable.*a;
? :Conditional Expression.If Condition is true ? then value X : otherwise value Y

Precedence of Operators in C

The precedence of operator species that which operator will be evaluated first and which will be evaluated next. The associativity specifies the operator direction to be evaluated; it may be left to right or right to left.

CategoryOperatorAssociativity
Postfix() [] -> . ++ – –Left to right
Unary+ – ! ~ ++ – – (type)* & sizeofRight to left
Multiplicative* / %Left to right
Additive+ –Left to right
Shift<< >>Left to right
Relational< <= > >=Left to right
Equality== !=Left to right
Bitwise AND&Left to right
Bitwise XOR^Left to right
Bitwise OR|Left to right
Logical AND&&Left to right
Logical OR||Left to right
Conditional?:Right to left
Assignment= += -= *= /= %=>>= <<= &= ^= |=Right to left
Comma,Left to right

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